Proceedings

2016


Download
Real-Time Corpus-Based Concatenative Synthesis for Symbolic Notation'
Daniele Ghisi and Carlos Agon
Abstract     Bibtex
We introduce a collection of modules designed to segment, analyze, display and sequence symbolic scores in real-time. This mechanism, inspired from CataRT’s corpus-based concatenative synthesis, is implemented as a part of the dada library for Max, currently under development.
@inproceedings{Ghisi_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Daniele Ghisi and Carlos Agon },
  Title = {Real-Time Corpus-Based Concatenative Synthesis for Symbolic Notation},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {1--7},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Tension ribbons: Quantifying and visualising tonal tension'
Dorien Herremans and Elaine Chew
Abstract     Bibtex
Tension is a complex multidimensional concept that is not easily quantified. This research proposes three methods for quantifying aspects of tonal tension based on the spiral array, a model for tonality. The cloud diameter measures the dispersion of clusters of notes in tonal space; the cloud momentum measures the movement of pitch sets in the spiral array; finally, tensile strain measures the distance between the local and global tonal context. The three methods are implemented in a system that displays the results as tension ribbons over the music score to allow for ease of interpretation. All three methods are extensively tested on data ranging from small snippets to phrases with the Tristan chord and larger sections from Beethoven and Schubert piano sonatas. They are further compared to results from an existing empirical experiment.
@inproceedings{Herremans_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Dorien Herremans and Elaine Chew },
  Title = {Tension ribbons: Quantifying and visualising tonal tension},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {8--18},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Hybrid Real/Mimetic Sound Works'
Lindsay Vickery
Abstract     Bibtex
In 2013 I began a project to construct a process allowing for data interchange between visual and sonic media: to create a continuum in which sound could be visualized and then resonified through by both live performers and digital means. A number of processes to aid this visualisation/sonification “ecosystem” were developed. Software was created to create scores based on sonic features of “field recordings” through spectral analysis by rendering the frequency of the strongest detected sinusoidal peak of a recording vertically and its timbral characteristics by luminance, hue and saturation on a scrolling score. Along similar principals a second process was developed to generate a realtime score using graphical symbols to represent detected accents in “found sound” speech recordings. In the other direction software was built to render greyscale images (including sonograms) as sound and a second iteration to generate audio from detected analysis parameters. The imperfections in the various transcription processes are intriguing in themselves as they throw into relief the distinctions between the various forms of representation and in particular the timescales in which they are perceived. The implied circularity of processes also opened the potential for re-interrogation of materials through repeated transmutation. This discussion explores these implications in the context of the analysis of field record-ings to generate visual representations that can be reson-ified using both performative (via notation) and machine (visual data-based) processes, to create hybrid re-al/mimetic sound works through the combination (and recombination) of the processes.
@inproceedings{Vickery_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Lindsay Vickery },
  Title = {Hybrid Real/Mimetic Sound Works},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {19--24},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Visualizing Music in its Entirety using Acoustic Features: Music Flowgram'
Dasaem Jeong and Juhan Nam
Abstract     Bibtex
In this paper, we present an automatic method for visualizing a music audio file from its beginning to end, especially for classical music. Our goal is developing an easy-to-use visualization method that is helpful for listeners and can be used for various kinds of classical music, even for complex orchestral music. To represent musical characteristic, the method uses audio features like volume, onset density, and auditory roughness, which describe loudness, tempo, and dissonance, respectively. These features are visually mapped into static two-dimensional graph, so that users can see how the music changes by time at a look. We have implemented the method with Web Audio API, and it works on recent version of web browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Opera. Users can access to the visualization system on their web browser and make visualizations from their own music audio files. Two types of user tests were conducted to verify effects and usefulness of the visualization for classical music listeners. The result shows that it helps listeners to memorize and understand a structure of music, and to easily find a specific part of the music.
@inproceedings{Jeong_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Dasaem Jeong and Juhan Nam },
  Title = {Visualizing Music in its Entirety using Acoustic Features: Music Flowgram},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {25--32},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Swaralipi: A Framework for Transcribing and Rendering Indic Music Sheet'
Chandan Misra, Tuhin Chakraborty, Anupam Basu and Baidurya Bhattacharya
Abstract     Bibtex
Creating music in computer system through its music notations requires two primary components. The first one is the mechanisms to encode music notations of respective music genres and the other one is a framework to provide the look and feel of the music written like a published or handwritten music sheet. Popular music scorewriters like Finale, Sibelius, MuseScore can edit, render and playback music transcribed in Staff notation. Being vastly different from the Indic music system in grammar, notation symbols, tonic system and encoding style, the architecture used in the music software for western music cannot cater to the Indic music system. For this reason there is a dearth of such scorewriters for Indic music system which is rich with a variety of musical genres, each different from the others in their unique notation system and language for depicting their lyric. In this paper, we propose a new framework for transcribing and rendering Indic music sheets for different genres of Indic music in computer. This framework is designed to support all major Indic notation systems and Indic language scripts and is explained using three major notation systems and language scripts throughout the paper as a case study.
@inproceedings{Misra_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Chandan Misra and Tuhin Chakraborty and Anupam Basu and Baidurya Bhattacharya },
  Title = {Swaralipi: A Framework for Transcribing and Rendering Indic Music Sheet},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {33--43},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Notating the Non-Notateable: Digital Notation of Txalaparta Practice'
Enrike Hurtado and Thor Magnusson
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper explores notation practices related to the ancient Basque musical tradition of the txalaparta. It will firstly present the txalaparta practice, introduce the im-provisational rules of txalaparta playing, and discuss attempts in creating notation systems for the instrument. Due to the nature of txalaparta playing, Common West-ern Notation is not a suitable notation, and we will pre-sent the notation system we have developed as part of the Digital Txalaparta project. This system captures the key parts of playing and serves for both playback and a rich documentation of what players actually perform.
@inproceedings{Hurtado_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Enrike Hurtado and Thor Magnusson },
  Title = {Notating the Non-Notateable: Digital Notation of Txalaparta Practice},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {44--49},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
S-notation: A complete musical notation system for scratching and sample music derived from "Theory of Motions"'
Alexander Sonnenfeld and Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen
Abstract     Bibtex
In this paper, we present and discuss S-notation for sample-based music, and particularly for DJ scratching and turntablism. Sonnenfeld developed S-notation based on his Theory of Motion where scratch music is seen as constructions of concurrent musical gestures (motion parameters), and not only turntable actions. The detailed symbolic notation was inspired by traditional musical notation, and among its advantages it covers current musical needs, it can be read and played live in performance, it provides a tool for composers to convey musical ideas, it can be expanded towards new styles and techniques, and it is generalizable to other types of sample-based music. In addition to motion parameters, the new notation system involves an analysis of the sampled sound. Finally, S-notation is also applicable for documenting and for teaching situations.
@inproceedings{Sonnenfeld_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Alexander Sonnenfeld and Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen },
  Title = {S-notation: A complete musical notation system for scratching and sample music derived from "Theory of Motions"},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {50--57},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Pitchcircle3D: A Case Study in Live Notation for Interactive Music Performance'
Tom Hall
Abstract     Bibtex
Recent decades have seen the establishment of computer software live notations intended as music scores, affording new modes of interaction between composers, improvisers, performers and audience. This paper presents a live notations project situated within the research domains of algorithmic music composition, improvisation, performance and software interaction design. The software enables the presentation of live animated scores which display 2D and 3D pitch-space representations of note collections including a spiral helix and pitch-class clock. The software has been specifically engineered within an existing sound synthesis environment, SuperCollider, to produce tight integration between sound synthesis and live notation. In a performance context, the live notation is usually presented as both music score and visualisation to the performers and audience respectively. The case study considers the performances of two of the author's contrasting compositions utilising the software. The results thus far from the project demonstrate the ways in which the software can afford different models of algorithmic and improvised interaction between the composer, performers and the music itself. Also included is a summary of feedback from musicians who have used the software in public music performances over a number of years.
@inproceedings{Hall_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Tom Hall },
  Title = {Pitchcircle3D: A Case Study in Live Notation for Interactive Music Performance},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {58--64},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Performance Practice of Real-Time Notation'
Seth Shafer
Abstract     Bibtex
The primary distinction between real-time and non-real-time notation is the ability for the performer to know ahead of time the exact details of what they will be asked to perform. This paper address the myriad of performance practice issues encountered when the notation of a work loosens its bounds in the world of the fixed and knowable, and instead explores the realms of chance, spontaneity, and interactivity. Some of these issues include: the problem of rehearsal, the problem of ensemble synchronization, the extreme limits of sight reading, failure as a compositional device, new freedoms for the performer and composer, and the new opportunities offered by the ephemerality and multiplicity of real-time notation.
@inproceedings{Shafer_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Seth Shafer },
  Title = {Performance Practice of Real-Time Notation},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {65--70},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Representing atypical music notation practices: An example with late 17th century music'
Rodolfo Zitellini and Laurent Pugin
Abstract     Bibtex
From the 17th century towards the first decades of the 18th century music notation slowly looses all influences from mensural music, becoming virtually identical to what we would consider common modern notation. But in these five decades of transformation composers did not just suddenly abandon older notation styles, but they were used alongside the ones that would become standard. Void notation, black notation and uncommon tempi were all mixed together. The scholar preparing modern editions of this music is normally forced to normalize all these atypical notations as many software applications do not support them natively. This paper exemplifies the flexibility of the encoding scheme proposed by the Music Encoding Initiative (MEI) and of Verovio, a visualisation library designed for it. The modular approach of these tools means that particular notation systems can be easily added whilst maintaining compatibility to other encoded notations.
@inproceedings{Zitellini_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Rodolfo Zitellini and Laurent Pugin },
  Title = {Representing atypical music notation practices: An example with late 17th century music},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {71--77},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
The Expressive Function in Wor Songs'
Helena Palma
Abstract     Bibtex
We study some musical and expressive features of traditional Wor vocal music, an ancestral gender of the Biaks (West Papua). A core aspect in Wor songs is the expression of wonder, which Biaks have developed into an Aesthetics of Surprise. We describe some key structural features in the pitch and time domain used as means to express such an aesthetics. We represent the acoustic and prosodic features encoding expressive content by means of an Expressive Function which contains expressive indices with internal structure. We propose an augmented expressive score for the transcription of unaccompanied Wor songs.
@inproceedings{Palma_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Helena Palma },
  Title = {The Expressive Function in Wor Songs},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {78--84},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Is There a Data Model in Music Notation?'
Raphaël Fournier-Sn'Iehotta, Philippe Rigaux and Nicolas Travers
Abstract     Bibtex
Scores are structured objects, and we can therefore envisage operations that change the structure of a score, combine several scores, and produce new score instances from some pre-existing material. Current score encodings, however, are designed for rendering and exchange purposes, and cannot directly be exploited as instances of a clear data model supporting algebraic manipulations. We propose an approach that leverages a music content model hidden in score notation, and define a set of composable operations to derive new "scores" from a corpus of existing ones. We show that this approach supplies a high-level tool to express common, useful applications, can easily be implemented on top of standard components, and finally gives rise to interesting conceptual issues related to the modeling of music notation.
@inproceedings{Fournier_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Raphaël Fournier-Sn'Iehotta and Philippe Rigaux and Nicolas Travers },
  Title = {Is There a Data Model in Music Notation?},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {85--91},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
The Ontology of Live Notations Through Assemblage Theory'
David Kim-Boyle
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper uses assemblage theory to help develop an ontological framework for better understanding live notation practice. Originally developed by Deleuze and Guattari across a range of theoretical writings, assemblage theory is more fully explicated in the work of Manuel de Landa in the more focused context of social ontology. This paper examines the basic concepts of assemblage theory such as material components, expressive capacities, and relations of exteriority and how they may pro-vide useful insights in the analysis of music which explores the creative potential of live notation. The temporal dynamics of non-linear musical forms are discussed and assemblage theory is shown to be a powerful tool for promoting a better understanding of how the various interactions between material and expressive components help catalyze the emergent properties of the assemblage and through it, the ontological identity of a live notation aesthetic practice.
@inproceedings{Kim-Boyle_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { David Kim-Boyle },
  Title = {The Ontology of Live Notations Through Assemblage Theory},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {92--97},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
[Study no. 50][Notational Becoming][Speculations]'
Ryan Ross Smith
Abstract     Bibtex
The use of animation in contemporary notational practices has become increasingly prevalent over the last ten years, due in large part to the increased compositional activities throughout Europe, the United Kingdom, and North America, and in particular Iceland and Western Australia.1 The publication of several foundational texts,2 and the materialization of focused scholarly meetings3 and online consolidation projects4 have also contributed to the expansion of this growing field of animated notational practice. The range of compositional ideas repre- sented by these scores is vast, encompassing a wide va- riety of stylistic approaches and technological experimentation. While these ideas often demonstrate intriguing compositional directions, and the unique dynamic functionalities and visual characteristics of animated scores are clearly distinct from traditionally-fixed scores, it is the real-time generative processes of these scores that represent a shift in the very ontology of the musical score. In this paper I speculate on one possible framing for this ontological distinction by focusing on several attributes that, in combination, most explicitly demonstrate this distinction. These include the real-time, process-based qualities of generative animated notations, the openness that enables these procedural functionalities, the displacement of interpretive influence, and the timeliness of these processes in respect to the temporal relationship between generation, representation as notation, and sonic realization. A new work, Study no. 50, will be examined as a practical demonstration of these attributes, and will function as a jumping off point for a speculative discussion of the concept of Notational Becoming.
@inproceedings{Ross-Smith_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Ryan Ross Smith },
  Title = {[Study no. 50][Notational Becoming][Speculations]},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {98--104},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Autonomy, Control, and Notation in Interactive Music'
K. Michael Fox
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper proposes a conceptualization of notation for interactive musical environments. The notational approach describes the relationship between both human and non-human agents, instead of actions to be taken or sounds to be made. Of critical importance in contemporary networked culture is the degree to which technological devices and networks constrain (or control) the actions of their users. The author has developed a conception of interactivity and notational considerations which instead foreground the autonomous potential of participants and the computational systems. The author analyzes three case studies that demonstrate either a direct connection or a broader conceptual link to the described notational approach. The larger implication is a need for notational systems which do not constrain the identity of the users of interactive systems while also acknowledging and representing the agency of the systems themselves.
@inproceedings{Fox_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { K. Michael Fox },
  Title = {Autonomy, Control, and Notation in Interactive Music},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {105--109},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Musical Instruments as Scores: A Hybrid Approach'
Enrique Tomás
Abstract     Bibtex
The development of new approaches to instrumentality during the decade of 1960 contributed to the dual perception of instruments as scores. For many performers, the instrument became the score of what they played. This artistic hybridization carries substantial questions about the nature of our scores and about the relationships among instruments, performers and musical works. This paper contextualizes the historical origins of this instrumental development within Drucker's theory of performative materiality. Then we examine the nature and notational scheme of this type of scores making use of the concept of "inherent score". Finally, through the analysis of two examples ("tangible scores" and "choreographic objects") and the notions of "affordance" and "constraint", a compositional framework for shaping the inherent instrument score is presented.
@inproceedings{Tomas_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Enrique Tomás },
  Title = {Musical Instruments as Scores: A Hybrid Approach},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {110--120},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Musicking the Body Electric. The "body:suit:score" as a polyvalent score interface for situational scores.'
Sandeep Bhagwati, Marcello Giordano, Joanna Berzowska, Alex Bachmayr, Julian Stein, Joseph Browne, Felix Del Tredici, Deborah Egloff, John Sullivan, Marcelo Wanderley and Isabelle Cossette
Abstract     Bibtex
Situational scores, in this paper, are defined as scores that deliver time- and context-sensitive score information to musicians at the moment when it becomes relevant. Mnemonic (rule/style-based) scores are the oldest score models of this type. Lately, animated, interactive, locative scores have added new options to situative scoring. The body:suit:score is an interface currently developed in collaboration of four labs at Concordia and McGill Universities in Montréal - an interface that will allow the musical use of all four types of situational score. Musicians are clad in a body-hugging suit with embedded technology - this suit becomes their score interface. Ultimately intended to enable ensembles to move through performance spaces unencumbered by visual scores and their specific locations, the project currently enters its second year of research-creation. The paper discusses the closely intertwined technological, ergonomic, music-psychology based and artistic decisions that have led to a first bodysuit prototype - a vibrotactile suit for a solo musician. It will also discuss the so-far three etude compositions by Sandeep Bhagwati and Julian Klein for this prototype, and their widely divergent conceptual approaches to an artistic use of the body:suit:score interface. Finally, the paper discusses next steps and emergent problems and opportunities, both technological and artistic.
@inproceedings{Bhagwati_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Sandeep Bhagwati and Marcello Giordano and Joanna Berzowska and Alex Bachmayr and Julian Stein and Joseph Browne and Felix Del Tredici and Deborah Egloff and John Sullivan and Marcelo Wanderley and Isabelle Cossette },
  Title = {Musicking the Body Electric. The "body:suit:score" as a polyvalent score interface for situational scores.},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {121--126},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Processing of symbolic music notation via multimodal performance data: Brian Ferneyhough’s Lemma-Icon-Epigram for solo piano, phase 1'
Pavlos Antoniadis and Frédéric Bevilacqua
Abstract     Bibtex
In the “Performance Notes” to his formidable solo piano work Lemma-Icon-Epigram, British composer Brian Ferneyhough proposes a top-down learning strategy: Its first phase would consist in an “overview of gestural patterning”, before delving into the notorious rhythmic intricacies of this most complex notation. In the current paper, we propose a methodology for inferring such patterning from multimodal performance data. In particular, we have a) conducted qualitative analysis of the correlations between the performance data -an audio recording, 12-axis acceleration and gyroscope signals captured by inertial sensors, kinect video and MIDI- and the implicit annotation of pitch during a ‘sight-reading’ performance; b) observed and documented the correspondence between patterns in the gestural signals and patterns in the score annotations and c) produced joint tablature-like representations, which inscribe the gestural patterning back into the notation, while reducing the pitch material by 70-80% of the original. In addition, we have incorporated this representation in videos and interactive multimodal tablatures using the INScore. Our work is drawing from recent studies in the fields of gesture modeling and interaction. It is extending the authors’ previous work on an embodied model of navigation of complex notation and on an application for offline and real-time gestural control of complex notation by the name GesTCom. Future prospects include the probabilistic modeling of gesture-to-notation mappings, towards the design of interactive systems which learn along with the performer while cutting through textual complexity.
@inproceedings{Antoniadis_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Pavlos Antoniadis and Frédéric Bevilacqua },
  Title = {Processing of symbolic music notation via multimodal performance data: Brian Ferneyhough’s Lemma-Icon-Epigram for solo piano, phase 1},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {127--136},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
INScore expressions to compose symbolic scores'
Gabriel Lepetit-Aimon, Dominique Fober, Yann Orlarey and Stéphane Letz
Abstract     Bibtex
INScore is an environment for the design of augmented interactive music scores turned to non-conventional use of music notation. The environment allows arbitrary graphic resources to be used and composed for the music representation. It supports symbolic music notation, described using Guido Music Notation or MusicXML formats. The environment has been extended to provided score level composition using a set of operators that consistently take scores as arguments to compute new scores as output. INScore API supports now score expressions both at OSC and at scripting levels. The work is based on a previous research that solved the issues of the notation consistency across scores composition. This paper focuses on the language level and explains the different strategies to evaluate score expressions.
@inproceedings{Lepetit-Aimon_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Gabriel Lepetit-Aimon and Dominique Fober and Yann Orlarey and Stéphane Letz },
  Title = {INScore expressions to compose symbolic scores},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {137--143},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
OMLILY: Filling the notational gap between composition and performance'
Karim Haddad and Carlos Agon
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper describes the design, the development, the usage, limitations and prospect of future development of Omlily, an OpenMusic library, for editing scores with Lilypond, using OM musical editors.
@inproceedings{Haddad_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Karim Haddad and Carlos Agon },
  Title = {OMLILY: Filling the notational gap between composition and performance},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {144--150},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Netscore: an Image Server/Client Package for Transmitting Notated Music to Browser and Virtual Reality Interfaces'
Benedict Carey and Georg Hajdu
Abstract     Bibtex
NetScore is an extension of the existing MaxScore pack-age (Hajdu, Didkovsky) which adds new functionality for the rapid transmission and display of music notation on remote devices through standard modern browsers with WebSocket support. This was seen as a necessary development for MaxScore due to the ubiquity of tablets and other mobile devices, among other advantages for the user, and future applications of the software. We chose a server based solution executed in Java using the Jetty library for both portability between different platforms, and scalability. Novel applications facilitated by NetScore include transmitting scores generated in Max/MSP into virtual reality interfaces and more convenient performance/ rehearsal of real-time generated music, whereby devices commonly on hand such as smartphones, tablets and laptops are used as e-scores without requiring the installation of additional software.
@inproceedings{Carey_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Benedict Carey and Georg Hajdu },
  Title = {Netscore: an Image Server/Client Package for Transmitting Notated Music to Browser and Virtual Reality Interfaces},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {151--156},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
FEATUR.UX: exploiting multitrack information for artistic visualization'
Ireti Olowe, Mathieu Barthet, Mick Grierson and Nick Bryan-Kinns
Abstract     Bibtex
FEATUR.UX (Feature - ous) is an audio visualization tool, currently in the process of development, which proposes to introduce a new approach to sound visualization using pre-mixed, independent multitracks and audio feature extraction. Sound visualization is usually performed using a final mix, mono or stereo track of audio. Audio feature extraction is commonly used in the field of music information retrieval to create search and recommendation systems for large music databases rather than generating live visualizations. Visualizing multitrack audio circumvents problems related to the source separation of mixed audio signals and presents an opportunity to examine interdependent relationships within and between separate streams of music. This novel approach to sound visualization aims to provide an enhanced accession to the listening experience corresponding to this use case that employs non-tonal, non-notated forms of electronic music. Findings from prior research studies focused on live performance and preliminary quantitative results from a user survey have provided the basis from which to develop a prototype that will be used throughout an iterative design study to examine the impact of using multitrack audio and audio feature extraction on sound visualization practice.
@inproceedings{Olowe_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Ireti Olowe and Mathieu Barthet and Mick Grierson and Nick Bryan-Kinns },
  Title = {FEATUR.UX: exploiting multitrack information for artistic visualization},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {157--166},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
A robust algebraic framework for high-level music programming'
David Janin
Abstract     Bibtex
In this paper, we present a new algebraic model for music programming : tiled musical graphs. It is based on the idea that the definition of musical objects~: what they are, and the synchronization of these objects~: when they should be played, are two orthogonal aspects of music programming that should be kept separate although handled in a combined way. This leads to the definition of an algebra of music objects~: tiled music graphs, which can be combined by a single operator : the tiled product, that is neither sequential nor parallel but both. From a mathematical point of view, this algebra is known to be especially robust since it is an inverse monoid. Various operators such as the reset and the coreset projections derive from these algebra and turned out to be fairly useful for music modeling. From a programming point of view, it provide a high level domain specific language (DSL) that is both hierarchical and modular. This language is currently under implementation in the functional programming language Haskell. From an applicative point of view, various music modeling examples are provided to show how notes, chords, melodies, musical meters and various kind of interpretation aspects can easily and robustly be encoded in this formalism.
@inproceedings{Janin_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { David Janin },
  Title = {A robust algebraic framework for high-level music programming},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {167--175},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
The Possibilities of a Line: Marking the Glissando in Music'
Cat Hope and Michael Terren
Abstract     Bibtex
Despite the prevalence of the term "line" in musicology to suggest a trajectory or contour of a melody, these do not embody the line in the Euclidean sense of the word, due to the striated, stepwise nature of pitches in the chromatic scale in traditional harmonic music. The glissando, however, embodies this literal and smooth line without fragmentation and has become a way to align music with other disciplines such as architecture, mathematics and physics. In a more figurative sense, the glissando has been used in a mimetic capacity to signify an irrational, metaphysical otherness. From modernist stochasticism to science fiction film scores, the glissando has a dynamic and complex relationship with representation.
Glissandi explore ideas of sonic trace, surface-ness and stasis. The notation of glissandi, in traditional Western and graphical notation as well as spectrographic visualisation, is presented as a line, its horizontal axis being a measure of time, and its vertical axis being a measure of pitch. This “pitch-time space” enables the consideration of the line as a sonic trace—of motion, gesture or time itself. This also permits the conceptualisation of the line as a surface.
Some glissandi also tend to operate in structural stasis, working against the glissando's function as a sonic trace, thus the glissando-as-stasis, especially as related to drone music, is explored. Deriving inspiration from works by composers, Iannis Xeankis, James Tenney and Giacinto Scelsi, compositional attempts to combine the nature of glissando with drone in the author’s own work are de-scribed, providing an examination of examples of the way glissandi and related concepts can be notated formal-ly, rather than decoratively, in musical works.
@inproceedings{Hope_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Cat Hope and Michael Terren },
  Title = {The Possibilities of a Line: Marking the Glissando in Music},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {176--180},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Resurrecting a Dinosaur - The Adaptation of Clarence Barlow's Legacy Software Autobusk'
Georg Hajdu
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper aims at describing efforts to conserve and further develop the legacy real-time generative music program AUTOBUSK by Clarence Barlow. We present a case study demonstrating that a simple port of 30+ year old code may not suffice to infuse new life into a project that suffered from the abandonment of the hardware it was developed on. In the process of resurrecting this dinosaur, AUTOBUSK was entirely redesigned for the popular music software environments Max and Ableton Live (via Max for Live) and renamed DJster. It comes in several incarnations, the most recent ones being DJster Autobus for Ableton Live, a device for real-time event generation and DJster Autobus Scorepion, a plugin for the MaxScore Editor. These incarnations take advantage of being embedded in current environments running on modern operating systems and have since acquired some new and useful features. As AUTOBUSK/DJster is based on universal musical principles, which Barlow formalized during the 1970’s while working on his generative piano piece Çoǧluotobüsişletmesi, its algorithms are of general applicability for composers and performers working in diverse fields such as microtonality, interactive installations and/or film music. It has therefore inspired me to lay the foundations of a shorthand notation, which we will discuss in the last section.
@inproceedings{Hajdu_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Georg Hajdu },
  Title = {Resurrecting a Dinosaur - The Adaptation of Clarence Barlow's Legacy Software Autobusk},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {181--186},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Hexaphonic Guitar Transcription and Visualization'
Iñigo Angulo, Sergio Giraldo and Rafael Ramirez
Abstract     Bibtex
Music representation has been a widely researched topic through centuries. Transcription of music through the conventional notation system has dominated the field, for the best part of the last centuries. However, this notational system often falls short of communicating the essence of music to the masses, especially to the people with no music training. Advances in signal processing and computer science over the last few decades have bridged this gap to an extent, but conveying the meaning of music remains a challenging research field. Music visualization is one such bridge, which we explore in this paper. This paper presents an approach to visually represent music produced by a guitar. To achieve this, hexaphonic guitar processing is carried out (i.e. processing each of the six strings as an independent monophonic sound source). Once this information is obtained, different approaches for representing it visually are explored. As a final result, a system is proposed to enrich the musical listening experience, by extending the perceived auditory sensations to include visual stimuli.
@inproceedings{Angulo_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Iñigo Angulo and Sergio Giraldo and Rafael Ramirez },
  Title = {Hexaphonic Guitar Transcription and Visualization},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {187--192},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Designing Dynamic Networked Scores to Enhance the Experience of Ensemble Music Making'
Alice Eldridge, Ed Hughes and Chris Kiefer
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper describes the impetus for, and design and evaluation of, a pilot project examining the potential for digital, dynamic networked scores to enhance the experience of ensemble music making. We present a new networked score presentation system, and describe how it has evolved through a participatory design approach. Feedback has highlighted key issues concerning synchronisation between conductor, performers and notation, and autonomy and adaptation for performers; we discuss these key points and present our future plans for the project.
@inproceedings{Eldridge_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Alice Eldridge and Ed Hughes and Chris Kiefer },
  Title = {Designing Dynamic Networked Scores to Enhance the Experience of Ensemble Music Making},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {193--199},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Conversion from Standard MIDI Files to Vertical Line Notation Scores and Automatic Decision of Piano Fingering for Beginners'
Yasuyuki Saito, Eita Nakamura, Riku Sato, Suguru Agata, Yuu Igarashi and Shigeki Sagayama
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper introduces "vertical line notation'' (VLN) of music for piano beginners, a conversion method from standard MIDI files to VLN scores, and an algorithm of automatic decision of piano fingering for it. Currently, staff notation is widely used for various instruments including piano. However, this notation often appears hard to beginners. On the other hand, VLN is intuitive and easy to understand for piano beginners since it graphically indicates the time order of notes as well as fingering. With the VLN score, piano beginners can make smooth progress with correct fingering. VLN scores are expected to help piano beginners make smooth progress with correct fingering. An issue with VLN is that it is currently created by hand with a spreadsheet software. It would be desirable to automatically produce VLN scores from existing digital scores. In this paper, we propose a method of converting standard MIDI files into VLN scores and an algorithm of automatic fingering decision for piano beginners. Some examples of practical and successful use of VLN scores are shown.
@inproceedings{Saito_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Yasuyuki Saito and Eita Nakamura and Riku Sato and Suguru Agata and Yuu Igarashi and Shigeki Sagayama },
  Title = {Conversion from Standard MIDI Files to Vertical Line Notation Scores and Automatic Decision of Piano Fingering for Beginners},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {200--211},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Taxonomy and Notation of Spatialization'
Emile Ellberger, Germán Toro Pérez, Linda Cavaliero, Johannes Schuett, Basile Zimmermann and Giorgio Zoia
Abstract     Bibtex
The SSMN Spatial Taxonomy and its symbols libraries, which are the corner stone of the Spatialization Symbolic Music Notation (SSMN) project, emanates from research into composers’ attitudes in this domain. It was conceived as the basis for the development of dedicated notation and rendering tools within the SSMN project. The taxonomy is a systematic representation of all relevant features necessary to specify sound spatiality: shape and acoustic quality of the space, structure, position and movement of sound sources. It is based on single descriptors that can be combined in order to define complex spatial configurations. Descriptors can be transformed locally and globally and can be the object of structural and behavioral operations. The SSMN Spatial Taxonomy proposes a corresponding graphic symbolic representation of descriptors, operations and other functional elements facilitating the communication of creative ideas to performers and technical assistants. This paper focuses on the presentation of the taxonomy and the symbols. Additionally it describes the workflow proposed for using symbols inside a notation software prototype developed within the project. Finally, further aspects concerning the actual and future developments of SSMN are mentioned.
@inproceedings{Ellberger_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Emile Ellberger and Germán Toro Pérez and Linda Cavaliero and Johannes Schuett and Basile Zimmermann and Giorgio Zoia },
  Title = {Taxonomy and Notation of Spatialization},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {212--219},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Music Analysis Through Visualization'
Jia Li
Abstract     Bibtex
In this paper analytic visualizations are used to selectively highlight salient musical features in four modern compositions, focusing on micro or macro structures: from motivic pitch contour to large-scale form. At a glance these visualizations allow a quick grasp of the structure and assist listeners to make connections between local features and global trends. Textures obscured by musical notation become more apparent when displayed in a graphical format, such as broad registral shifts, polyphonic streaming, as well as interplay between instruments. Pitch, timbre and voicing are plotted against time to show large-scale patterns that would otherwise be difficult to recognize in a musical score or compare between different works. Music analysis through compositional data visualization not only makes sense to musicians but also to non-musicians, facilitating collaboration and exchange with artists and technicians in other media.
@inproceedings{Li_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Jia Li },
  Title = {Music Analysis Through Visualization},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {220--225},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Notation as Temporal Instrument'
Eric Maestri
Abstract     Bibtex
In this paper the author proposes a descriptive musicological framework built on the notion of notation as temporal instrument in today's context of electronic music. The principal goal is to discuss a research categorization of musical notation that consider the performative character of musical writing in electronic music performance. In the intentions of the author, this framework could resume the multiple enhancement of the temporal dimension of notation implied by the new means of performance in electronic music.
@inproceedings{Maestri_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Eric Maestri },
  Title = {Notation as Temporal Instrument},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {226--229},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
Visual Confusion in Piano Notation'
Marion Wood
Abstract     Bibtex
This series of Reaction Time experiments investigates how quickly notes can be read from a screen and immediately executed on a MIDI keyboard. This makes it possible to study pitch reading and motor coordination in considerable detail away from the customary confounds of rhythm reading or pulse entrainment. The first experiment found that reaction times were slower in extreme keys (3#, 4#, 3b, 4b), even for very experienced sightreaders, a large effect of clef in most individuals, and other results suggesting that, in this simple paradigm at least, reading notation presents more of a difficulty to execution than motor coordination. A second experiment found, in addition, an effect of order in which the notes were presented. A clarified form of notation was devised that disambiguates visual confusion across key signatures, and to some extent across clefs. Initial results from an experiment to contrast traditional noteheads with the clearer ones found substantial improvements in both Reaction Time and accuracy for the clarified notation. The possible applications of improved notation to the wider field of piano playing are discussed.
@inproceedings{Wood_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Marion Wood },
  Title = {Visual Confusion in Piano Notation},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {230--239},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	
Download
From Transcription to Signal Representation: Pitch, Rhythm and Performance'
Marie Tahon and Pierre-Eugène Sitchet
Abstract     Bibtex
Musical transcription is a real challenge, moreover in a folk music context. Signal visualization tools could be of interest for such music. The present paper is a comparison of a musical transcription and two signal representations (pitch and rhythm) applied to a song from the Gwoka repertoire. The study aims at finding similar elements and differences on pitch, rhythm and performance features in both the transcription and the signal visualization. Signal visualization is founded on vowel segmentation, and extraction of pitch and duration information. On the one hand transcription gives general characteristics on the music (harmony, tonality and rhythmic structure) and on the other hand, signal visualization gives performance-related characteristics. The main conclusion is that both approaches are of great interest for understanding such a music.
@inproceedings{Tahon_tenor2016,
  Address = {Cambridge, UK},
  Author = { Marie Tahon and Pierre-Eugène Sitchet },
  Title = {From Transcription to Signal Representation: Pitch, Rhythm and Performance},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2016},
  Pages = {240--245},
  Year = {2016},
  Editor = {Richard Hoadley and Chris Nash and Dominique Fober},
  Publisher = {Anglia Ruskin University},
  ISBN = {978-0-9931461-1-4}
}
	

2015


Download
LEADSHEETJS: A Javascript Library for Online Lead Sheet Edition'
Daniel Martín, Timotée Neullas and François Pachet
Abstract     Bibtex
Lead sheets are routinely used in many genres of popular music. Lead sheets are music scores consisting of a melody and a chord grid. With the increase of online and portable music applications, the need for easily embeddable, adaptable and extensible lead sheet editing tools is pressing. We introduce LeadsheetJS, a javascript library for visualizing, editing and rendering lead sheets on multiple devices. LeadsheetJS provides lead sheet edition as well as support for extensions such as score augmentation and peer feedback. LeadsheetJS is a client-based component that can be embedded from arbitrary third-party websites. We describe the main design aspects of LeadsheetJS and some applications in online computer-aided composition tools.
@inproceedings{Martin_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Daniel Martín and Timotée Neullas and François Pachet },
  Title = {LEADSHEETJS: A Javascript Library for Online Lead Sheet Edition},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {1--10},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Bigram Editor: a score editor for the Bigram Notation'
Andres Perez-Lopez, Pep Alcantara-Noalles and Bertrand Kientz
Abstract     Bibtex
The Bigram Notation is an alternative approach to musical notation, based on the chromatic nature of Western music. As observed historically with alternative notation systems, their spread and consolidation is based on the existence of complementary and supportive tools, as ideosyncratic instruments and specific written material. Accordingly, we present the binary keyboards and the Bigram Editor, a graphical bigram score editor with automatic transcription and reproduction capabilities
@inproceedings{Perez-Lopez_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Andres Perez-Lopez and Pep Alcantara-Noalles and Bertrand Kientz },
  Title = {Bigram Editor: a score editor for the Bigram Notation},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {11--17},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Expressive Quantization of Complex Rhythmic Structures for Automatic Music Transcription'
Mauricio Rodriguez
Abstract     Bibtex
Two quantization models for ‘expressive’ rendering of complex rhythmic patterns are discussed. A multi-nesting quantizer captures expressivity by allowing fine-grained/high-quality resolution, thus covering the automatic transcription of a wide range of rhythmic configurations, yielding from simple to rather complex music notations. A look-up table quantizer is discussed as another model to attain expressivity and musical consistency; input is quantized by comparison of 'rhythmic similarity' from a user-defined data-set or look-up 'dictionary'. Both quantizers are presented as computing assisting tools to facilitate the transcription of rhythmic structures into the symbolic domain (i.e. music notation).
@inproceedings{Rodriguez_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Mauricio Rodriguez },
  Title = {Expressive Quantization of Complex Rhythmic Structures for Automatic Music Transcription},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {18--22},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Computer-aided Melody Note Transcription Using the Tony Software: Accuracy and Efficiency'
Matthias Mauch, Chris Cannam, Rachel Bittner, George Fazekas, Justin Salamon, Jiajie Dai, Juan Bello and Simon Dixon
Abstract     Bibtex
We present Tony, a software tool for the interactive evaluation of melodies from monophonic audio recordings, and evaluate its usability and the accuracy of its note extraction method. The scientific study of acoustic performances of melodies, whether sung or played, requires the accurate transcription of notes and pitches. To achieve the desired transcription accuracy for a particular application, researchers manually correct results obtained by automatic methods. Tony is an interactive tool directly aimed at making this correction task efficient. It provides (a) state-of-the art algorithms for pitch and note estimation, (b) visual and auditory feedback for easy error-spotting, (c) an intelligent graphical user interface through which the user can rapidly correct estimation errors, d) extensive export functions enabling further processing in other applications. We show that Tony's built in automatic note transcription method compares favorably against existing tools. We report how long it takes to annotate recordings on a set of 96 recordings and study the effect of piece, the number of edits made and the annotator's increasing mastery of the software. Tony is Open Source software, with source code and compiled binaries for Windows and Mac OS X available from https://code.soundsoftware.ac.uk/projects/tony/.
@inproceedings{Mauch_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Matthias Mauch and Chris Cannam and Rachel Bittner and George Fazekas and Justin Salamon and Jiajie Dai and Juan Bello and Simon Dixon },
  Title = {Computer-aided Melody Note Transcription Using the Tony Software: Accuracy and Efficiency},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {23--30},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Understanding Animated Notation'
Christian Fischer
Abstract     Bibtex
Alternative notation approaches become more and more popular. Animated notation is one of them. Mainly because it seems easy to apply. On the other hand, practice shows that classically trained musicians, composers and musicologists tend to reject this kind of notation. Furthermore some musical performances based on animated notation should face the question whether a regular notation would not have been more efficient. Overall there is still a lack of knowledge and some misconceptions when it comes to animated notation and its practical application. A brief look into the development of animated notation, examples of actual fields of application and especially an examination of the visual communication process and the design of animated scores will shed a little light into the darkness.
@inproceedings{Fischer_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Christian Fischer },
  Title = {Understanding Animated Notation},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {31--38},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
An Atomic Approach to Animated Music Notation'
Ryan Ross Smith
Abstract     Bibtex
Since the turn of the century, and in particular the last 5 years, the discourse surrounding dynamic scoring techniques and practices has increased dramatically, while leading to an increasingly disparate terminological melee. With an awareness of what implications exist in the premature analysis and theorization of an emerging field of practice, the author argues that in order to further develop a taxonomy of dynamic scoring techniques and practices, it may be useful to take a reductionist approach toward defining the various low-level elements of dynamic scoring, in the case of this paper those elements that features prominently in Animated Music Notation [AMN]. By suggesting a set of low-level elements, and isolating the actualized indicators of contact and intersection as the primary functional components of AMN, the author will propose a working definition of AMN supported by examples drawn from the author’s work and others. This definition is not intended to satisfy the broad range of dynamic scoring techniques that implement AMN, but to highlight prevalent methodologies, and to point toward the extension of existing taxonomies, specifically regard-ing their respective global functionalities.
@inproceedings{RSmith_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Ryan Ross Smith },
  Title = {An Atomic Approach to Animated Music Notation},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {39--47},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
SEMAPHORE: Cross-Domain Expressive Mapping with Live Notation'
Richard Hoadley
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper describes research, investigations, creative experiments and performances undertaken by the author in collaboration with practitioners in different creative and performance domains. The research focuses on the translation of expression between these domains and its implementation using technology. This paper focuses primarily on the role of notation in this process. The domains involved include music (audio and notation), movement (dance) and text (poetry). The data arising from performers’ movements are collected and investigated; consideration is given to the use of image and graphics enabling elementary algorithmically generated dance notation.
@inproceedings{Hoadley_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Richard Hoadley },
  Title = {SEMAPHORE: Cross-Domain Expressive Mapping with Live Notation},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {48--57},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
The DECIBEL Scoreplayer - A Digital Tool for Reading Graphic Notation'
Cat Hope, Lindsay Vickery, Aaron Wyatt and Stuart James
Abstract     Bibtex
These implementations are taken to be a part of the creative process. This research is about creating and investigating stimulating experiences where connections between one domain and the other are perceivable and where this connection itself provides an aesthetic experience. They are not intended to be fixed and permanent (although may remain so for the duration of a composition). The research is about creating dynamic environments, not musical instruments or general purpose tools.
@inproceedings{Hope_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Cat Hope and Lindsay Vickery and Aaron Wyatt and Stuart James },
  Title = {The DECIBEL Scoreplayer - A Digital Tool for Reading Graphic Notation},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {58--69},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Spectromorphological Notation: Exploring the Uses of Timbral Visualisations in Ethnomusicological Works'
Hassan Abdullah Mohd and Andrew Blackburn
Abstract     Bibtex
Ethnomusicologists often face problem in precisely de-scribing characteristic of a sound recorded in the field-work. Written explanation normally will use the meta-phoric words to represent the timbral characteristic of a sound produced by ethnic musical instruments. But to what extend the reader will understand and perceive the sound based on the writer explanation? This study will explore all the possibilities of using timbral visualization in recognizing the Malaysian traditional musical instru-ments. We introduce an instrument recognition process in solo recordings of a set of Malay traditional instruments (gedombak), which yields a high recognition rate. A large sound profile is used in order to encompass the different sound characteristic of each instrument and evaluate the generalization abilities of the recognition process.
@inproceedings{Mohd_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Hassan Abdullah Mohd and Andrew Blackburn },
  Title = {Spectromorphological Notation: Exploring the Uses of Timbral Visualisations in Ethnomusicological Works},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {70--73},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
denm (dynamic environmental notation for music): Introducing a Performance-Centric Musical Interface'
James Bean
Abstract     Bibtex
denm (dynamic environmental notation for music) is an automatic notation renderer written for tablet computers in the Swift language and the Cocoa Touch Frameworks. denm is a performance-centric notation environment with many tools built into an interactive graphical representation of music. These tools, for both individual- and group-rehearsal contexts, invite multi-dimensional learning strategies to performing the complex musics written today. There are many excellent tools currently available that automatically generate musical scores, but the focus of these tools is often towards the compositional and/or theoretical end of the musical process. denm focuses its efforts on the performance end of the process, allowing performers to interact directly with the musical notation. This paper describes the impetus for the denm project, the current state of its development, and areas of continued implementation and exploration.
@inproceedings{Bean_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { James Bean },
  Title = {denm (dynamic environmental notation for music): Introducing a Performance-Centric Musical Interface},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {74--80},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
OSSIA: towards a unified interface for scoring time and interaction'
Jean-Michaël Celerier, Pascal Baltazar, Clément Bossut, Nicolas Vuaille, Jean-Michel Couturier and Myriam Desainte-Catherine
Abstract     Bibtex
The theory of interactive scores addresses the writing and execution of temporal constraints between musical objects, with the ability to describe the use of interactivity in the scores. In this paper, a notation for the use of conditional branching in interactive scores will be introduced. It is based on a high level formalism for the authoring of interactive scores developed during the course of the OSSIA research project. This formalism is meant to be at the same time easily manipulated by composers, and translatable to multiple formal methods used in interactive scores like Petri nets and timed automaton. An application programming interface that allows the interactive scores to be embedded in other software and the authoring software, i-score, will be presented.
@inproceedings{Celerier_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Jean-Michaël Celerier and Pascal Baltazar and Clément Bossut and Nicolas Vuaille and Jean-Michel Couturier and Myriam Desainte-Catherine },
  Title = {OSSIA: towards a unified interface for scoring time and interaction},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {81--90},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
A Sign to write Acousmatic Scores'
Jean-Louis Di Santo
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper aims at describing an approach meant to build a sign adapted to acousmatic music and based on reduced listening. The sign, to be efficient, must obey to a certain number of requisits: precision, ergonomy, relevance... It must be both easy to use and able to create relations between sounds. A simple description of their qualities is not enough: it must be able to create or analyse sound compositions and structures, such as instrumental scores. To fulfill this purpose, it must be able to give each sound a value, in a saussurian meaning of the word. I will try to show the genealogy of my sign, how I took elements of reflexion from musical knowledge, linguistics, semiotics and aesthetics. From there I deduced the concept of minimal unit of sound applied to electroacoustic music and I created a sign combining symbols to decribe its features. I'll show how I have reorganised sound paramaters described by Schaeffer and how this sign works. At last, I will show the possibilities of writing scores sound by sound and I'll show two kinds of analysis: the analysis of a pure acousmatic work from a formal point of view and the analysis of a work for tape and instruments both from a formal and a symbolic point of view.
@inproceedings{DiSanto_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Jean-Louis Di Santo },
  Title = {A Sign to write Acousmatic Scores},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {91--97},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
A Paradigm for Scoring Spatialization Notation'
Emile Ellberger, Germán Toro-Perez, Johannes Schuett, Linda Cavaliero and Giorgio Zoia
Abstract     Bibtex
SSMN intends to develop a conceptual framework and a tool set that allows composers to integrate spatialization in musical notation from the onset of the creation process. As the composition takes form and graphic symbols ex-pressing spatialization is introduced into the score, instant audio rendering provides feedback within a surround sound configuration. In parallel, SSMN helps interpreters and audio engineers to learn and master scores that con-tain complex instructions of motion in space easily re-cognizable both in printed and animated electronic for-mat. At first a SSMN Spatial Taxonomy was established to identify key motion in space possibilities within musi-cal context; consequently, a collection of SSMN Symbols has been designed and implemented in a software library of graphical objects within MuseScoreSSMN, a dedicated editor that has been developed to allow interactive use of this library along with CWMN. In order to bridge the gap between visual elements and audio perception, an SSMN-Rendering-Engine application is at the heart of OSC inter-application communication strategies allowing the use of DAW and user-defined programming envi-ronments along with MuseScoreSSMN. A prototype has been prepared and tested by a user group consisting of composers and performers. Further research shall address other user cases integrating electroacoustic paradigms.
@inproceedings{Ellberger_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Emile Ellberger and Germán Toro-Perez and Johannes Schuett and Linda Cavaliero and Giorgio Zoia },
  Title = {A Paradigm for Scoring Spatialization Notation},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {98--102},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Accretion: Flexible, Networked Animated Music Notation For Orchestra With the Raspberry Pi'
Kelly Fox
Abstract     Bibtex
In 2014, the author set out to expand the notational potential of their generative music systems to be performed by the Rensselaer Orchestra in Troy, NY. The experiments resulted in the use of several networked Raspberry Pi devices delivering a realtime, generative Animated Music Notation to subsections of the live orchestra during performance. This paper outlines the structure of the piece, Accretion; the technical details of its implementation; and the possibilities presented by using the Raspberry Pi to deliver scored materials to performers. Ultimately, the paper seeks to make a case for adopting the Raspberry Pi as a powerful device and method of distribution/performance of Animated Music Notation.
@inproceedings{Fox_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Kelly Fox },
  Title = {Accretion: Flexible, Networked Animated Music Notation For Orchestra With the Raspberry Pi},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {103--108},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Single Interface for Music Score Searching and Analysis (SIMSSA)'
Ichiro Fujinaga and Andrew Hankinson
Abstract     Bibtex
Single Interface for Music Score Searching and Analysis (SIMSSA) project targets digitized music scores to de-sign a global infrastructure for searching and analyzing music scores. Specifically, we seek to provide research-ers, musicians, and others to access the contents and metadata of a large number of scores in a searchable, digital format. In this project, we are developing proto-types for processing and accessing the scores by consult-ing closely music researchers, musicians, and librarians.
@inproceedings{Fujinaga_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Ichiro Fujinaga and Andrew Hankinson },
  Title = {Single Interface for Music Score Searching and Analysis (SIMSSA)},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {109--115},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Browsing soundscapes'
Patrice Guyot and Julien Pinquier
Abstract     Bibtex
Browsing soundscapes is generally based on the waveform of the audio signal or textual metadata, which may be not informative. The TM-charts provide an efficient tool to represent and compare soundscapes. However, they remain little used probably due to the human annotation they need. In this paper, we describe a new approach to compute charts of soundscapes, that we call Samocharts. The Samocharts are inspired by TM-charts and can be computed without a human annotation. We present two methods for Samochart computation. The first one is based on a segmentation of the signal from a set of predefined sound events. The second one is based on the confidence score of the detection algorithms. We describe two application cases on corpora of field recording from the CIESS and the UrbanSound projects. Finally, Samocharts provide a compact and efficient representation of soundscapes, which can be used in different kind of applications.
@inproceedings{Guyot_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Patrice Guyot and Julien Pinquier },
  Title = {Browsing soundscapes},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {116-123},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Graphic to Symbolic Representations of Musical Notation'
Craig Sapp
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper discusses a graphically oriented representation for music and how such representation systems can be converted into more symbolic/semantic representations of music. Specifically the representation system of the SCORE notation editor is presented along with case studies converting into other symbolic formats such as MIDI, Humdrum, Dox, MuseData, MusicXML and MEI using scorelib, an open-source library. Knowledge of the SCORE data format is useful for projects working on OMR (Optical Music Recognition) as it can be used as an intermediate layer between the raw scans and other digital music notation representation systems, as well as going in the other direction again from generalized music representations to specific graphical layouts.
@inproceedings{Sapp_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Craig Sapp },
  Title = {Graphic to Symbolic Representations of Musical Notation},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {124--132},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Code scores in Live Coding'
Thor Magnusson
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper explores the idea of live coding programming environments as notational systems. The improvisational practice of live coding as combining both composition and performance is introduced and selected systems are discussed. The author's Threnoscope system is then intro- duced, but this is a system that contains both descriptive and prescriptive scores that can be changed in real-time.
@inproceedings{Magnusson_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Thor Magnusson },
  Title = {Code scores in Live Coding},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {133--138},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
THEMA: A Music Notation Software Package with Integrated and Automatic Data Collection'
Peter McCulloch
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper introduces Thema, a custom music notation software environment designed to automatically and transparently capture quantitative data into a relational database. The majority of research into musical creativity is qualitative in nature, and this software addresses several areas, such as search and improvisational data, which are not well-addressed in the qualitative toolkit. Thema's database provides advantages over ad hoc file collection mechanisms by providing integrated search; the software also is able to consistently identify musical material via automatically assigned identification codes, and this provides a useful supplement to content-based search. In 2013, a study was conducted of ten graduate-level composers using Thema, and the dataset from this study was used to develop new analytical tools for examining compositional data.
@inproceedings{McCulloch_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Peter McCulloch },
  Title = {THEMA: A Music Notation Software Package with Integrated and Automatic Data Collection},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {139--145},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Standard Music Font Layout (SMuFL)'
Daniel Spreadbury and Robert Piéchaud
Abstract     Bibtex
Digital typefaces containing the symbols used in Western common music notation have been in use for 30 years, but the development of the repertoire of symbols that are included, their assignment to code points, and design considerations such as glyph metrics and registration, have been rather ad hoc. The Standard Music Font Layout (SMuFL) establishes guidelines for all of these areas, and a reference implementation is available in the Bravura font family. Software developers and font designers alike are beginning to develop implementations of SMuFL in their products, and benefits including easier data interchange, interoperability of fonts with a variety of software packages, are already being felt.
@inproceedings{Spreadbury_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Daniel Spreadbury and Robert Piéchaud },
  Title = {Standard Music Font Layout (SMuFL)},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {146--153},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
SVG to OSC Transcoding as a Platform for Notational Praxis and Electronic Performance'
Rama Gottfried
Abstract     Bibtex
In this paper presents a case study in the creation of an open notational framework for experimentation with new types of notation that may be applied in a wide variety of contexts. By separating the visual representation from the act of rendering, a space for an interpretive grammar layer is created in which symbolic notation may be translated into a format that is understood by another form of rendering. Technical details of preliminary work on this topic is presented, using Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) as a container for hierarchical score information which is then transcoded to OpenSoundControl (OSC) as an intermediate data processing before being passed to a given rendering context.
@inproceedings{Gottfried_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Rama Gottfried },
  Title = {SVG to OSC Transcoding as a Platform for Notational Praxis and Electronic Performance},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {154--161},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Abjad: An Open-source Software System for Formalized Score Control'
Trevor Bača, Josiah Oberholtzer, Jeffrey Treviño and Víctor Adán
Abstract     Bibtex
The Abjad API for Formalized Score Control extends the Python programming language with an open-source, object-oriented model of common-practice music notation that enables composers to build scores through the aggregation of elemental notation objects. A summary of widely used notation systems’ intended uses motivates a discussion of system design priorities via examples of system use.
@inproceedings{Baca_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Trevor Bača and Josiah Oberholtzer and Jeffrey Treviño and Víctor Adán },
  Title = {Abjad: An Open-source Software System for Formalized Score Control},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {162--169},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
The Notation of Dynamic Levels in the Performance of Electronic Music'
Carlo Laurenzi and Marco Stroppa
Abstract     Bibtex
The “sound diffusion” (or “sound projection”), that is, “the projection and the spreading of sound in an acoustic space for a group of listeners”[1], of works for solo electronics or for acoustic instruments and electronics (so called, “mixed pieces”), has always raised the issue of notating the levels to be reproduced during a concert or the correct balance between the electronics and the instruments. If, in the last decades, some attempts were made by few composers or computer-music designers, mostly in the form of scores, none of these managed to establish a common practice. In addition, little theoretical work has been done so far to address the performative aspects of a piece, that is, to provide just the useful information to the person in charge of the sound diffusion. Through the discussion of three historical examples and the analysis of two experiences we developed, we will try to identify some possibly general solutions that could be adopted independently on the aesthetic or tech-nological choices of a given piece.
@inproceedings{Laurenzi_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Carlo Laurenzi and Marco Stroppa },
  Title = {The Notation of Dynamic Levels in the Performance of Electronic Music},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {170--179},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Automated Representations of Temporal Aspects of Electroacoustic Music: Recent Experiments Using Perceptual Models'
David Hirst
Abstract     Bibtex
Within this paper we firstly examine the determination of a number of temporal aspects of Electroacoustic Music, and their representations. Then various automated segmentation methods, for Harrison’s Unsound Objects, are investigated. We find the multi-granular approach outlined by Lartillot et al, combined with the use of MFCCs, is a very efficient and salient segmentation strategy for music structured predominantly according to timbre. Further, the ‘Contrast’ parameter is both versatile and effective in determining the granularity of segmentation.
@inproceedings{Hirst_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { David Hirst },
  Title = {Automated Representations of Temporal Aspects of Electroacoustic Music: Recent Experiments Using Perceptual Models},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {180--189},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
The Cognitive Dimensions of Music Notations'
Chris Nash
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper presents and adapts the Cognitive Dimensions of Notations framework (Green and Petre, 1996) for use in designing and analysing notations (and user interfaces) in both digital and traditional music practice and study. Originally developed to research the psychology of programming languages, the framework has since found wider use in both general HCI and music. The paper provides an overview of the framework, its application, and a detailed account of the core cognitive dimensions, each discussed in the context of three music scenarios: the score, Max/MSP, and sequencer/DAW software. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies for applying the framework are presented in closing, highlighting directions for further development of the framework.
@inproceedings{Nash_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Chris Nash },
  Title = {The Cognitive Dimensions of Music Notations},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {190--202},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Tufte Design Concepts in Musical Score Creation'
Benjamin Bacon and Marcelo Wanderley
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper introduces several examples of utilizing the information design concepts of Edward Tufte in musical no- tation and score design. Tufte is generally considered a modern pioneer in the field of information design. With several authoritative texts, Tufte’s work displays countless examples of successful and unsuccessful attempts of displaying information while also offering a few personal redesigns of especially troubled instances. Overall, Tufte reveals interesting concepts which could be useful when applied to designing musical notation systems. The author presents three personal notational examples which have been aided by Tufte’s work. Information design is a vast multidisciplinary field which could provide composers and musicians with an abundance of technical approaches to complex notational challenges.
@inproceedings{Bacon_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Benjamin Bacon and Marcelo Wanderley },
  Title = {Tufte Design Concepts in Musical Score Creation},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {203--209},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Notation as Instrument: From Representation to Enaction'
Eric Maestri and Pavlos Antoniadis
Abstract     Bibtex
The paper explores the hybridization of notation and instrument as a cognitive movement from representation to enaction. Features of such hybridization are latent in every notation, as a mix of descriptive and prescriptive functions. Current advances in the fields of computer music representation (interactive scores) and New Interfaces for Musical Expression, with precedents in graphic and action-oriented scores, are turning notation into a shared multimodal platform between composer and performer, liquidizing the limit between notation and instrument. We will present this dynamic rapport between scores and interfaces (haptic interactions, INScore, GesTCom, post-Klaus K. Hübler tablature notations of decoupled action-structures) in the light of theoretical models (enaction defined as navigation of affordances from the field of embodied and extended cognition, Leman’s action-reaction cycle extended from instrument-making into notation, Veitl’s conception of software as tablature, Atau Tanaka’s definition of instruments as open-ended systems etc.). We are following an explicit line from new interfaces involving notation back to graphic and action-oriented scores, considering them in the theoretical framework of enaction.
@inproceedings{Maestri_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Eric Maestri and Pavlos Antoniadis },
  Title = {Notation as Instrument: From Representation to Enaction},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {210--217},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Timbral Notation from Spectrograms: Notating the Un-Notatable?'
Andrew Blackburn and Jean Penny
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper outlines the background to a research project currently underway in Malaysia that, through spectography seeks to find models that might assist in the future development of a timbral notation. Located within the music creation and performance practices of the researchers, the project has elements of interculturality which both enrich and inform the research. The authors consider the nature of a music score, the explicit and implicit information it carries, and how this impacts on the models being developed. The understandings elicited to date are not only located in music practice, but are underpinned and supported by the theoretical works of a number of recent philosophers and theorists. The overall research project is broken down into smaller discrete sub-projects which are discussed, and the findings of each sub-project are then contextualized in the wider project. These findings include a discussion of the score as artifact and the potential contained within it. The finding in two sub-projects of a possible model of gestural notation, albeit with different purposes, suggests this as a further avenue of research. The paper concludes with some suggestions of future research areas that will follow on from the models of timbral notation being explored in this project.
@inproceedings{Blackburn_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Andrew Blackburn and Jean Penny },
  Title = {Timbral Notation from Spectrograms: Notating the Un-Notatable?},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {218--225},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Composing with Graphics: Revealing the Compositional Process through Performance'
Pedro Rebelo
Abstract     Bibtex
The research presented here is product of a practice-based process that primarily generates knowledge through col-laboration and exchange in performance situations. It is this collaboration and exchange with various musicians over a period of five years that constitutes a body of practice that is here reflected upon. The paper focuses on non-instructional graphic scores and presents some insights based on performances of works by the author. We address how composition processes are revealed in graphic scores by looking at the conditions of decision making at the point of preparing a performance. We argue that three key elements are at play in the interpretation of these types of graphic scores: performance practice, mapping and musical form. By reflecting particularly on the work Cipher Series (Rebelo, 2010) we offer insights into the strategies for approaching the performance of graphic scores that go beyond symbolic codification.
@inproceedings{Rebelo_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Pedro Rebelo },
  Title = {Composing with Graphics: Revealing the Compositional Process through Performance},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {226--230},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Access to musical information for blind people'
Nadine Baptiste
Abstract     Bibtex
In this paper we describe our approach to help blind people to access musical information. Guidelines of our approach are centered on information accessibility according to user disability. We present the process which permits to code and transform musical information to be read, treat and analyze by a Blind musician. We focus our proposition on the various level of description of the score done by several code and we exploit and describe existing results like BMML (Braille Music Markup Lan-guage) defined during Contrapunctus European project. We describe and comment different scenarios using existing free transformation modules and software to obtain a score in BMML in order to be read and manipulate by a Blind people with BMR (Braille Music Reader) and the recommendation and tutorials propositions done during the Musi4vip European project.
@inproceedings{Baptiste_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Nadine Baptiste },
  Title = {Access to musical information for blind people},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {231--235},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Non-overlapping, Time-coherent Visualisation of Action Commands in the AscoGraph Interactive Music User Interface'
Grigore Burloiu and Arshia Cont
Abstract     Bibtex
Integrated authoring and performing of Mixed Music scores, where musicians interact dynamically with computer-controlled electronics, is enabled by the Antescofo state-of-the-art software package. Composers are able to plan computerised actions through a dedicated programming language, and performances are then synchronised in real time. AscoGraph is the dedicated graphical interface that allows users to configure Antescofo behaviours and visualise their layout over a Mixed Music score. This paper presents developments in the direction of increased clarity and coherence of AscoGraph’s visualisation of computerised action scores. Algorithms for efficient automatic stacking of time-overlapping action blocks are presented, as well as a simplified model for displaying atomic actions. The paper presents the improvements in score readability achieved, as well as the challenges faced towards a complete representation of dynamic mixed scores in the AscoGraph visual environment.
@inproceedings{Burloiu_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Grigore Burloiu and Arshia Cont },
  Title = {Non-overlapping, Time-coherent Visualisation of Action Commands in the AscoGraph Interactive Music User Interface},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {236--240},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}
	
Download
Dynamic Notation – A Solution to the Conundrum of Non-Standard Music Practice'
Georg Hajdu
Abstract     Bibtex
This paper discusses dynamic notation—a method allowing, in a notation environment, instant switching between different views or notation styles, thus creating a common ground for practitioners of non-standard music, such as composers, performers, conductors and scholars. A plugin structure for different notation styles based on a set of maps and queries executed during note entry and rendering, affecting music glyph choice and placement was implemented in the MaxScore Editor—a notation editor designed to run in Max or Ableton Live. We will give an in-depth analysis of the methods used for equidistant scales, non-octave tunings, music in just intonation as well as for instrument-specific layouts and will con-clude with a description of a scenario in which dynamic notation was used for the transcription and performance of Alexander Scriabin’s piano poem Vers la Flamme op. 72 by an ensemble of acoustic Bohlen-Pierce instruments.
@inproceedings{Hajdu_tenor2015,
  Address = {Paris, France},
  Author = { Georg Hajdu },
  Title = {Dynamic Notation – A Solution to the Conundrum of Non-Standard Music Practice},
  Booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation - TENOR2015},
  Pages = {241--248},
  Year = {2015},
  Editor = {Marc Battier and Jean Bresson and Pierre Couprie and Cécile Davy-Rigaux and Dominique Fober and Yann Geslin and Hugues Genevois and François Picard and Alice Tacaille},
  Publisher = {},
  ISBN = {978-2-9552905-0-7}
}